Efektivitas Applied Behavior Analysis terhadap Kemampuan Interaksi Sosial Murid SLB dengan Gangguan Spektrum Autis di Bali

Ni Nyoman Ari Indra Dewi, Diah Widiawati Retnoningtyas

Abstract


Abstrak. Autistic Spectrum Disorder terjadi karena kelainan neurologis yang membuat sel sel otak tidak bersambungan dan membuat hendaya dalam intekasi sosial. Salah satu upaya dilakukan untuk menangani gangguan interaksi sosial pada Autistic Spectrum Disorder adalah dengan Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Masalah yang diulas dalam penelitian ini adalah efektivitas Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) terhadap kemampuan interaksi sosial anak Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) yang ada di SLB Gianyar Bali. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif tipe eksperimen one group pretest dan posttest, serta menggunakan Children Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS-2), wawancara dan observasi dengan tujuan mengetahui pengaruh Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) terhadap kemampuan interaksi sosial anak Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Pada desain ini awal penelitian dilakukan pengukuran terhadap interaksi sosial anak Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) dengan menggunakan Children Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS-2), kemudian subyek diberikan intervensi sebanyak 14 sesi dengan durasi 60 menit untuk tiap tiap sesi. Subjek berjumlah lima orang dengan kriteria usia 7-12 tahun, siswa SLB Gianyar, spektrum autis ringan, belum pernah menjalani proses terapi psikologis. Setelah diberi intervensi pengukuran kembali dilakukan dengan menggunakan Children Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS-2). Analisis data menggunakan uji statistik Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test, dengan hasil perbandingan sebelum dan sesudah pemberian Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) adalah (p = 0, 042 < 0,05). Artinya perlakuan Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) dapat meningkatkan kemampuan interaksi sosial pada anak dengan Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Kata Kunci: applied behavior analysis, skala autis (CARS)-2, gangguan spektrum autis, interaksi sosial, anak.
Abstract. The child with special needed Autistic Spectrum Disorder in children occurs because of a neurological disorder that makes the brain cells not contiguous and crate inpairment in social intimacy. One of the efforts made to deal with the disruption of social interactions in the Autistic Spectrum Disorder is with the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). The problem discussed in this study is the effectiveness of the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) on the ability of social interaction of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the Gianyar School for Children with Special Needs. This study employs the quantitative method type of experimental research and use the Children Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS-2) with interviews and observations with the aim of knowing the effect of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) on the ability of social interaction of Autistic Spectrum Disorder
(ASD). In this design, the initial study was carried out to measure the social
interaction of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) using the
Children Autism Rating Scale-2 (CARS-2), then the subjects were given
intervention as many as 14 sessions with 60 minutes duration for each
session. Subjects had criteria for ages 7-12, Gianyar School for children with
special needs students, mild autism spectrum, had never undergone a
psychological therapy process. After being given an intervention the remeasurement
was carried out using the Children Autism Rating Scale-2
(CARS-2). Data analysis utilize the Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test statistical test,
with the results of comparison before and after the application of Applied
Behavior Analysis (ABA) is (p = 0, 042 <0.05). This signifies that the
treatment of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) can improve the ability of
social interaction in children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Keywords: applied behavior analysis, autism rating scale (CARS)-2, autistic
spectrum disorder, children, social interaction

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